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The colors of a butterfly's wings are caused by tiny scales. Do they all produce colors in the same way?


I took this photo on the beach in St. Augustine. The Sun had just peaked over the horizon, and formed a bright column of light above it. Why?


I got this photo during our visit to White Sands, and used the sound of the thunder with the Flash/Bang method to determine that the bolt was about two miles away. How does lightning produce thunder?


I took this photo on a boat excursion on the Colorado River. A recent comment asked why the sky is blue. OK, so why is the sky blue? And why is it bluer on some days and less blue on others?


I took this photo during a boat ride on the Colorado River. I liked the way the canyon walls reflected in the water near the boat's wake. Since the water was crystal clear, why do you see the reflection of the canyon, instead of seeing through to the bottom of the river?

Fireworks Colors

Fireworks play a role in many holidays and celebrations. Have you ever wondered how they get the different colors into the fireworks? If you want yellow fire, do you add yellow paint to the mixture? No, that would not work. Instead, you need something that will burn with a yellow flame. Yellow flames are fairly common, but what about green flames or purple flames?

Color of a Flame

Have you ever wondered why a candle flame is yellow? And if you look carefully, you will see that the very bottom of the flame is blue! Why would that part of the flame be a different color? The best way to find out is to do some careful experimentation.


This experiment uses fire. Be very careful and safe.